GLOSSARY OF TERMS - METALS
ACID BRITTLENESS - Commonly attributed to the absorption of hydrogen, this is the brittleness induced steel when it is pickled in diluted solution of acid for the purpose of removing scale, or upon electroplating.
ACID LINING - The inner bottom and lining of a metling furnace composed of materials having an acid reaction if in contact with a molten slag (sand, silicous rock, or silica bricks).
ACID STEEL - Steel melted in a furnace having an acid bottom and lining and under a slag with acid reaction. The term has no reference to the acidity of the steel.
AGING - The spontaneous change in the properties of a metal usually associated with the recovery of the metal from an unstable condition produced by quenching (quenchaging) or by cold working (strainaging).
AIR HARDENING ( Air Quenching) - A hardening process wherein the steel is heated to the hardening temperature and cooled in the air. Unless steel is high in carbon or alloy, or both, it will not show much increase in hardness when air hardened.
ALLOY - A material with metallic properties composed of two or more elements of which as least one is a metal.
AMORPHOUS - Non-Crystalline.
ANNEALING - Annealing generally regers to the heating and controlled cooling of solid material for the purpose of removing stresses. making it softer, refining its structure of changing its ductility, toughness or other properties. Specific heat treatments covered by the term annealing include black annealing, blue annealing, box annealing, bright annealing, full annealing, graphitizing, malleablizing and process annealing.
AS ROLLED - When bars are hot rolled and allowed to cool in the air, they are to be in the "as rolled" or natural condition.
AUSTEMPERING - A patented heat treatment process that consists of quenching an iron-base alloy from a temperature above the transformation range in a medium having a high rate of heat abstraction, and then maintaining the metal, until rate of heat abstraction, and then maintaining the metal, until transformation is complete, at a substantially uniformed temperature which is below that of peralite formation and above that of martensite formation.
AUSTENITIC STEEL - Steel which has a stable austentic structure at normal (room) temperatures.